skip to con tent

In this section

Chicago Style: Notes-Bibliography System

The main components of the Notes-Bibliography system used in the humanities include the use of footnotes and/or endnotes and a bibliography.

Notes should be included each time a direct quotation or a paraphrasing of another authors work is used in the paper. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page the cited material is on, while endnotes appear at the end of a chapter, section, or the entire paper. In both cases, a superscript number (like so1) should appear in-text immediately following the cited material, which will correspond to the number of the note.

The first time a work is referenced, the full bibliographic information should appear in the note. Subsequent citations to a previously cited work can include just the authors surname, the title, and the pages referenced. If the same work is cited in succession, the word Ibid. can be used in place of the bibliographic information. This is an abbreviated form of the Latin word ibidem, which means in the same place. If different pages are referenced in this situation, simply write the corresponding page numbers after Ibid.

The Bibliography is a list of all the works cited in a single piece of writing. For each work referenced an entry is written including the authors full name, title of the work, and the publishing information. Authors names are inverted (Last name, First name) and the entries are listed alphabetically.