skip to con tent

APA Style

In-Text Citations

Using in-text citations will help your readers to know where your information is coming from and how current that information happens to be. Here are a few examples of how to cite sources in your text using APA style:


According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style," but she did not offer an explanation as to why (Jones, 1998, p. 199).


According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

Notice that the author's last name, the date of publication, and the page number are key to getting this right. The examples above show you a couple of ways that you can incorporate these three important pieces of information. Also note that while the page number is not always required for paraphrased material, we recommend you include it, as some professors want to know where to find the information in the text.

The Writing Studio can help you to smoothly incorporate your sources and to troubleshoot more difficult sources to cite. You can also go online to Web sites like the Online Writing Lab at Purdue to help you find answers to your APA questions.

Reference Pages

Heres how to create a reference page in APA style. A reference page is what people will often call a bibliography. The sample reference page below has an example of a book, a Web site, a magazine article, an online newspaper article, an annual report, and a print newspaper article (in that order). Heres how they look when put together:


Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC:     

American Psychological Association.

Health Canada. (2002, February). The safety of genetically modified food crops. Retrieved from http://www.hc

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Petro-Canada. (2007). Opportunities tomorrow. Performance today: Annual report 2007. Retrieved from http://annualreport.petro AnnualReport_en_2007.pdf

Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.


In APA style, presentations, personal communication, and e-mails are not considered recoverable information, so you don't include them in the references page. However, you can include them in your paper. If you think of the Writing Studio director as a guest speaker you would like to cite, here's how:

Brian Fallon noted that the Writing Studio helps students learn more about APA style and is open 9am-9pm Monday-Friday, 1pm-4pm on Saturday and 5pm-9pm on Sunday in Feldman, room C612 (personal communication, February 1, 2016).