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Chicago Style: Notes-Bibliography System

The main components of the Notes-Bibliography system used in the humanities include the use of footnotes and/or endnotes and a bibliography.

Notes should be included each time a direct quotation or a paraphrasing of another author’s work is used in the paper. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page the cited material is on, while endnotes appear at the end of a chapter, section, or the entire paper. In both cases, a superscript number (like so1) should appear in-text immediately following the cited material, which will correspond to the number of the note.

The first time a work is referenced, the full bibliographic information should appear in the note. Subsequent citations to a previously cited work can include just the author’s surname, the title, and the pages referenced. If the same work is cited in succession, the word ‘Ibid.’ can be used in place of the bibliographic information. This is an abbreviated form of the Latin word ‘ibidem,’ which means ‘in the same place.’ If different pages are referenced in this situation, simply write the corresponding page numbers after ‘Ibid.’

The Bibliography is a list of all the works cited in a single piece of writing. For each work referenced an entry is written including the author’s full name, title of the work, and the publishing information. Authors’ names are inverted (Last name, First name) and the entries are listed alphabetically.

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